The 22 main pros and cons of democracy - Cegast Academy (2023)

The advantages and disadvantages of democracy include avoidance of dictatorship, respect for human rights, and a calm and peaceful change of government; on the one hand the disunity, the institutionalization of corruption, the possibility of mafia rule and the slowing down of the decision-making process on the other hand.

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In this government tutorial, we will discuss the pros and cons of democracy in detail. So, if you want to know the main pros and cons of representative democracy in the modern state, I encourage you to read on.

If you are a senior or high school student, you will find this post on the pros and cons of democracy very helpful. If you are a state tutor or a social studies teacher, this position can help you prepare for your democracy class.


1A template for your government essay

2What is democracy?

3 examples of leading global democracies

5 The benefits of democracy

61. Prevent dictation.

72. Abuse of power is minimal.

83. Democracy promotes respect for human rights.

94. Guarantee free and fair elections.

105. There is a calm and peaceful change of government.

116. Democracy promotes sustainable economic growth and development.

127. Promotes the exchange of ideas and consensus building.

138. There is popular participation in government.

149. Democracy establishes legitimate government.

1510. Promotes social and economic equality.

1712. Positives internationales Image

18 The Disadvantages of Democracy

191. Party politics is divisive.

202. Destroy personal relationships.

213. Democracy fosters a culture of corruption.

224. Politicians take advantage of voters' ignorance.

235. Majority rule is not always best.

246. Democracy is expensive.

257. Delays decision making.

268. Democracy encourages immorality.

279. Give up long-term strategies and encourage short-term thinking.

2810. Democracy promotes demagogy.


A template for your government editorial office

I structured this post so that it could help you write your own government essay on the pros and cons of democracy.

I also deliberately explained each point with examples and supporting ideas. This is to help you develop your paragraphs properly. That is, if you are a state high school student or even a graduate student pursuing a bachelor's degree in political science or a related field.

Here is a typical old WASSCE government question from the West African Examinations Council (WAEC).


Before discussing the pros and cons of representative democracy, we need to define democracy as a form of government. So the question is this:

What is democracy?

Democracy is a form of government in which political power resides in and emanates from the voters. In other words, in a democracy, the electorate has the power to elect and appoint a specific group of people to administer the affairs of the state, usually for a limited period of time.

There is still much more to learnDefinition of Democracy. But for now let's focus on the pros and cons of democracy.

Examples of leading global democracies

Below is a brief list of some of the many countries that practice democracy around the world.

  • EU
  • or UK
  • Israel
  • If
  • Deutschland
  • Japan
  • Nigeria
  • Gana
  • Gambia
  • Sierra Leone
  • Liberia
  • Botsuana
  • Kenya
  • Italy
  • Brazil
  • Argentina
  • Australia
  • New Zealand
  • You have
  • Mauricio
  • France
  • South Korea

The above list is only a small fraction of the democratic states in the world today.

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The 22 main pros and cons of democracy - Cegast Academy (1)

The benefits of democracy

So why do most of the world's nations prefer democracy to authoritarian government? Below are the main advantages of democracy.

1. Prevent dictation.

In a functioning democracy, it is difficult for a dictator to emerge as a leader. One reason is that a state committed to democratic governance is aware of the dangers of authoritarian rule.

For example, the situation where people lose their voice to speak freely and choose what is best for them is never tolerated in a democracy.

2. Abuse of power is minimal.

Closely related to the above merits of democratic government is preventing the abuse of political power. Constitutional guarantees such as the rule of law (rule of law), separation of powers and checks and balances ensure that government officials remain within their borders in the performance of their duties. That helps preventarbitrary rule

3. Democracy promotes respect for human rights.

One of the greatest benefits of democracy is that it guarantees that every individual's basic human rights are protected by the constitution.

Almost all democratic states practiceconstitutional government. There are guarantees in the constitution that prevent the government from abusing citizens' rights.

Examples of these basic human rights are the right to life, freedom of expression and assembly, the right to property and freedom from unlawful arrest and detention.

4. Guarantee free and fair elections.

Another advantage of democracy is that it promotes free and fair elections. This in turn enables the state to have truly representative government.

A free and fair election leads to an outcome that is widely accepted by the main actors in the political process.

Democracy therefore minimizes electoral disputes. It also prevents violent conflicts that can occur after an election.

5. There is a calm and peaceful change of government.

In a democracy, the electoral process is the means by which to decide who will be given the mandate to form the next government. This prevents the violent overthrow of an unpopular government.

People are saved from the unfortunate consequences of armed conflicts and civil wars. These include loss of life, wanton destruction of property and delayed economic development.

Therefore, democracy helps maintain a peaceful political atmosphere within the state. In other words, democracy has the benefit of promoting social and political stability.

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6. Democracy promotes sustainable economic growth and development.

It is easier to maintain uninterrupted economic growth and development in a democratic state than under autocratic leadership. Because the probability of a revolution or a military coup is minimal in a democratic culture.

The 22 main pros and cons of democracy - Cegast Academy (2)

7. Promotes the exchange of ideas and consensus building.

Democratic governments allow free expression of dissent. In addition, there are constitutional provisions that take into account the concerns of all social classes.

The resulting exchange of views is good for reaching consensus on important national issues.

The overall effect is that the best ideas from all sides find their way into useful national policies.

8. There is popular participation in government.

Most nations of the world have chosen democracy over autocracy because democracy puts the people at the center of their government.

Arrangements such as decentralization, freedom of the press, general elections, and delegated legislation allow ordinary citizens to have a voice in government.

9. Democracy establishes legitimate government.

Next in our discussion of the pros and cons of democracy is the fact that democracy confers legitimacy on government.

In a democratic state, the group of leaders is mandated by the people to direct the affairs of the state. An elected government therefore has the legal and moral authority to issue orders, formulate policies, and implement them.

A high level of trust in government promotes efficiency.

10. Promotes social and economic equality.

Pros and cons of democracy include promoting equality at all levels. This is one of the most desirable benefits of democracy.

In fact, the essence of democratic governance is to promote the well-being of all people living in the state. This is made possible, among other things, by promoting the principles of the rule of law, a fair judiciary, and the provision of economic infrastructure and social services.

11. Democracy inspires loyalty and patriotism.

People living in a democratic system have a sense of ownership of the political process. They tend to develop a higher level of trust in the system due to ensuring accountability.

As a result, loyalty to the state is relatively high. The spirit of patriotism is not coerced or inspired by fear. It is true and even makes many citizens willing to give their lives to protect their freedoms and liberties.

12. Positives internationales Image

Finally, democracy is a more desirable system of government because it presents a positive image of any country striving to function according to its principles.

These principles of democracy include respect for human rights and the promotion of equality, justice and human dignity.

Democracy makes a country look good in the eyes of the rest of the world. The resulting benefits include attracting foreign direct investment, economic aid and diplomatic support.heaviness.

Now let's quickly move to the second part of this tutorial on the pros and cons of democracy. Let's take a closer look at some of the main critics of democracy.

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In other words, we will try to answer the following question.

What are the reasons why some states choose autocratic leadership?

The Disadvantages of Democracy

Critics of democracy argue that it works against the interests of the people it is meant to serve.

Here are the main disadvantages of democracy.

1. Party politics is divisive.

Partisan politics, which is the bedrock of democracy, tends to undermine national integration.

For example, partisan politics creates new divisions and exacerbates existing ones. Tribal or sectional politics threatened national unity in many democracies around the world.

2. Destroy personal relationships.

We can't stop talking about the detrimental effects of party politics on happy personal relationships. This is one of the most regrettable disadvantages of democracy.

In Africa, best friends, spouses and business associates become sworn enemies overnight because of their political differences. This is how old friendships die, otherwise happy marriages break up and deals all close on the altar of democracy.

The dire consequences this can have for any society are too many to list in this article.

3. Democracy fosters a culture of corruption.

The need for party loyalty, the high cost of political competition, and the desire to always have a strong following have led to corrupt practices within many political parties.

Bribery, nepotism and extortion are common evils that plague most democracies. Patronage and lobbying have also led to uncomfortable conflicts of interest in democratic institutions.

4. Politicians take advantage of voter ignorance.

In most African countries, for example, there is a high level of illiteracy and ignorance on many national issues. Smart politicians take advantage of the ignorance of the electorate and literally lie to the government.

Once in power. his true intentions and abilities are revealed. In most cases, people's well-being is worse than before.

The interests of voters are often blatantly disregarded immediately after the election. Many voters only hear from their representatives again before the next vote.

5. Majority Rule isn't always best.

Another great pitfall of democracy is that it assumes that the majority is always right. This has often been proven wrong.

In fact, the threat of an ineffective mafia system of government emerging after an election is very real.

Furthermore, in a winner-take-all deal, it is possible to completely exclude the bright minds and ideas on the minority side.

There have been cases where key leadership positions have been filled with the wrong people because they belonged to the majority party.

This can only undermine any nation-building effort.

6. Democracy is expensive.

We can count the high cost of democracy on many levels. This includes the loss of productive time, money, resources and lives in the processPolitics.

7. Delays decision making.

Another disadvantage of practicing democracy is the slowness of the decision-making process. In most constitutional democracies, unlike in one-party dictatorships, the government must consult extensively before making major policy decisions.

Federal constitutions and decentralization ensure that minority opinions are heard. All of this takes time and undermines the rapid decision-making required for effective governance.

8. Democracy fosters immorality.

The intense competition for votes and power gives way to lies, half-truths and outright murder. All of this is done freely in the name of propaganda.

Mature adult members of society, who are supposed to be role models for growing children, lie and swear publicly with impunity. The result is the scepter of social decadence that prevails in many democracies.

9. It sacrifices long-term strategies and encourages short-term thinking.

Next in our discussion of the pros and cons of democracy comes the unfortunate situation where the desire to win the next election tends to dictate the thinking and actions of the ruling party.

In a democracy, the danger of losing power is always present. As a result, rulers ignore long-term sustainable strategies that do not promise immediate political benefit.

So, election cycle after election cycle, governments are sacrificing the long-term needs of the people for selfish political gain.

In Africa, for example, expensive roads, school buildings and bridges are built hastily and poorly. The timely conclusion is important in order to guarantee the positive vote of the target groups.

10. Democracy promotes demagogy.

The danger of the wrong people coming to power with populist rhetoric never goes away. And each time this comes true, the effects are more devastating than is usual under totalitarian rule.


As you can see, there are several advantages and disadvantages of democracy. But as daunting as the downsides of democracy may seem, I still think there are good reasons to choose democracy over autocracy.

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